Zurbaran, Baltazar and Ayala:Artistic resources and influences of Seville in Portuguese painting materials and techniques through Óbidos Workshop from the 17th century
Josefa d'Ayala e Cabrera so-called Josefa d’Óbidos (Sevi1la, Spain 1630-Óbidos, Portugal, 1684) and her father Baltazar Gomes Figueira (Óbidos, Portugal, 1604-1674) were the most important pair of painters of the 17th century in Portugal. Their style is Proto-Baroque, reflecting the Iberian cultural diversity with direct influences from the most important painters working in Seville such as Francisco de Herrera el Viejo, Juan del Castillo, Zurbaran, Murillo, or the treatisist Francisco Pacheco. The artistic Spanish influence is visible during the period of Iberian union. From the seventeenth century, the use of Iberian artistic materials intensifies in Portugal, of which the most important are the pigments brought from Castile, specifically through its most important commercial and artistic trade market, Seville.
The materiality and painting techniques used in these painters workshop is practically unknown. This work studies a group of paintings assigned to the three painters to define the materials used and the particular techniques employed, from ground to priming and painting layers.